Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation

Hard And Soft Technology

Related distinction is between "hard" and "soft" technology. Hard technology represents equipment, machinery, R&D laboratories, etc., and soft technology, drawings, specifications, organizational management techniques and so on.

Know-how And Know-why

Between levels or "rungs" of technological competence. For example, Sanjaya Lall (1987), distinguishes between know-how and know-why technology. Know how comprises the knowledge of how to make the best use of the technology or technological capacity acquired. Know-why involves the understanding of the nature of the underlying materials, process and product technologies, and leads to a substantial adaption, improvements and even replacement of existing materials, processes and products.